Supermoon: What is it and when does it occur?

Large pink supermoon rises through wispy clouds above Vancouver city skyline.
Supermoon rising over Vancouver skyline. (Image credit: jamesvancouver via Getty Images)

A supermoon occurs when the full moon coincides with the moon's closest approach to Earth in its orbit. Supermoons make the moon appear a little brighter and closer than normal, although the difference is hard to spot with the naked eye. 

According to Fred Espanak, eclipse expert and retired NASA astrophysicist and the Farmer's Almanac, there will be four supermoons in 2022, in May, June, July and August. Espanak's definition of a supermoon as a full moon within 90% of its closest approach to Earth gives us four to view this year. 

The closest supermoon this year will rise on July 13, 2022. This full moon is often referred to as a "Buck Moon," although it has different nicknames according to different cultures. This year's May supermoon will coincide with a total lunar eclipse. 

Related: Full moon calendar 2022: When to see the next full moon 

The term "supermoon" has only been used in the past 40 years, but it received a slew of attention in late 2016 when three supermoons occurred in a row. The supermoon of November 2016 was also the closest supermoon in 69 years, although a closer supermoon will rise in the 2030s. 

Supermoon 2022 dates

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According to the Farmer's Almanac, using data from Fred Espenak's guide, the four supermoons of 2022 will be as follows:
NameDateDistance from Earth
Flower MoonMay 16 at 12:15 a.m. EDT (0415 GMT) 225,015.3 miles (362,127 km)
Strawberry MoonJune 14 7:52 a.m. EDT (1152 GMT)222,238.4 miles (357,658 km)
Buck Moon July 13 at 2:38 P.M. EDT (1838 GMT)222,089.3 miles (357,418 km)
Sturgeon MoonAugust 11 at 9:36 P.M. EDT (0136 GMT)224,569.1 miles (361,409 km)

What causes a supermoon?

The moon's orbit around the Earth is not a perfect circle. It has an average distance of 238,000 miles (382,900 km) from Earth, but its apogee and perigee — the closest and farthest approaches from Earth — change every lunar month.

"The main reason why the orbit of the moon is not a perfect circle is that there are a lot of tidal, or gravitational, forces that are pulling on the moon," said NASA's Noah Petro, deputy scientist of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, in a 2016 Space.com interview.

He added that the different gravities of the Earth, sun and planets all have an effect on the moon's orbit. "You have all of these different gravitational forces pulling and pushing on the moon, which gives us opportunities to have these close passes."

A supermoon rises above the Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument and Capitol Building in Washington DC.  (Image credit: Ultima_Gaina via Getty Images)
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A supermoon needs two key ingredients to occur. The moon needs to be at its closest approach, or perigee, to the Earth in its 27-day orbit. The moon also needs to be at the full phase, which happens every 29.5 days when the sun fully illuminates the moon. Supermoons only happen a few times a year (at most) because the moon's orbit changes orientation while the Earth orbits the sun — that's why you don't see a supermoon every month.

The moon will appear as much as 30 percent brighter and 14 percent larger than usual, but it's very hard to spot the difference with the naked eye. "That's not enough to notice unless you're a very careful moon-watcher," Sky & Telescope magazine senior editor Alan MacRobert said in a 2016 statement (opens in new tab)

The supermoon may look especially large to you, however, if it's very close to the horizon. But that has nothing to do with astronomy and everything to do with how the human brain works. This effect is called the "moon illusion" and may arise from at least a couple of different things. Scientists suggest that perhaps the brain is comparing the moon to nearby buildings or objects, or perhaps our brain is just wired to process things on the horizon as bigger than things in the sky.

Astrological origins

The term "supermoon" didn't originate in astronomy, but in astrology — a pseudoscientific tradition that studies the movements of celestial objects to make predictions about human behavior and events. The term was first mentioned in a 1979 article for Dell Horoscope magazine by Richard Nolle, according to Astronomy.com (opens in new tab). Nolle defined a supermoon as "a new or full moon which occurs with the moon at or near (within 90 percent of) its closest approach to Earth in a given orbit", without explaining where he obtained the 90 percent figure.

But it wasn't until the last few years that the term received more attention. A search on Google Trends (opens in new tab) reveals that starting from 2004, the word "supermoon" was not used often until at least 2011. Interest in the supermoon hit a high in November 2016, when Earth experienced the largest supermoon in 69 years (opens in new tab). Further, the term appears to be more popular in certain areas of the world — principally Southeast Asia and North America — with some lesser interest in places such as Europe or India.

Supermoon photographed alongside migratory birds in Chatham, Massachusetts, U.S.  (Image credit: Cavan Images via Getty Images)
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Supermoons can appear 30% brighter and up to 14% larger than typical full moons. Learn what makes a big full moon a true 'supermoon' in this Space.com infographic. (Image credit: Karl Tate/SPACE.com)
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Recent astronomical terms such as "supermoon" or "black moon" (the second new moon in a month) could create a perception of "false events" among the public, Cincinatti Observatory outreach astronomer Dean Regas told Space.com in 2016. But Regas, who also co-hosts the PBS program "Star Gazers," said the "supermoon" term is a great public outreach term for astronomy that could have other benefits beyond the event itself.

"It's a great way to get the public interested," he said of the supermoon. "It's something that they can relate to and they can go out and actually see." 

Notable supermoons

On Jan. 20-21, 2019, the supermoon coincided with a lunar eclipse. Lunar eclipses occur when the Earth is exactly between the sun and the moon. The moon shines brown-red because the only light it receives is reflected from Earth. 

The end of 2016 saw three supermoons in a row in October, November and December. But it was the Nov. 14 one that got the most attention because it was the closest supermoon in recent memory. The moon's perigee was 221,524 miles (356,508 kilometers) from Earth, making it the closest full moon to Earth in 69 years — specifically, since the supermoon of Jan. 26, 1948.

An even closer full moon took place in January 1912; it was roughly 100 kilometers nearer to Earth than in November 2016. But skywatchers who are around in November 2034 will get a special treat, as that moon will be even closer than both the 1912 and 2016 moons.

Additional information

Explore supermoons in more detail with NASA (opens in new tab). Discover the supermoon cycle and why the moon can look so big with the Natural History Museum (opens in new tab). Find out more about when supermoons occur with TimeandDate.com (opens in new tab)

Bibliography

NASA. (2021, July 28). What is a supermoon? – NASA solar system exploration (opens in new tab). NASA. Retrieved May 9, 2022.

V. Hocken and A.Kher. What Is a Supermoon and When Is the Next One? Time and Date. (opens in new tab)Retrieved May 9, 2022.

Berman, B. (2022, May 3). What is a supermoon? Almanac.com (opens in new tab). Retrieved May 9, 2022. 

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Elizabeth Howell
Staff Writer, Spaceflight

Elizabeth Howell, Ph.D., is a staff writer in the spaceflight channel since 2022. She was contributing writer for Space.com (opens in new tab) for 10 years before that, since 2012. Elizabeth's reporting includes an exclusive with Office of the Vice-President of the United States, speaking several times with the International Space Station, witnessing five human spaceflight launches on two continents, working inside a spacesuit, and participating in a simulated Mars mission. Her latest book, "Why Am I Taller?", is co-written with astronaut Dave Williams. Elizabeth holds a Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota, a Bachelor of Journalism from Canada's Carleton University and (soon) a Bachelor of History from Athabasca University. Elizabeth is also a post-secondary instructor in communications and science since 2015. Elizabeth first got interested in space after watching the movie Apollo 13 in 1996, and still wants to be an astronaut someday. Mastodon: https://qoto.org/@howellspace

With contributions from
  • rod
    Jean Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms book (Chapter 48, Perigee and Apogee of the Moon) calculated the lunar perigee and apogee for the period 1500 AD through 2500 AD. Closest approach to Earth using their centers is on 01-January-2257 at 356371 km. Farthest is on 07-January-2266 at 406720 km. The angular size difference is 4.151 arcminute. Max is 33.53 arcminute, min 29.379 arcminute. Lunar perigee this month is 07-April-2020 at 1800 UT, distance 356907 km, angular size 33.48 arcminute. April issue of Sky & Telescope magazine, page 42.

    Early today I viewed Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter with my telescope, 0515-0600 EDT, lovely views before clouds started moving in. The waxing gibbous Moon very low in west, setting about 0611 EDT. That moon looked huge (ginormous) to my unaided eyes, perhaps a close super duper-moon :)
    Reply