The aerial exploration of Mars has begun.
NASA's Ingenuity helicopter lifted off on the Red Planet early this morning (April 19), performing the first-ever powered flight on a world beyond Earth.
The 4-lb. (1.8 kilograms) chopper was scheduled to rise from the floor of Mars' Jezero Crater at 12:31 a.m. EDT (0431 GMT) today, get a maximum of 10 feet (3 meters) above the red dirt and land after roughly 40 seconds aloft.
At about 6:15 a.m. EDT (1015 GMT), data came down from Ingenuity — via its much larger partner, NASA's Perseverance rover — that the little rotorcraft had hit its marks. The first photo from Ingenuity showed the helicopter's shadow on the Martian surface below, while Perseverance captured stunning video of the historic flight on Mars.
"Ingenuity has performed its first flight, the first flight of a powered aircraft on another planet!" Ingenuity's chief pilot Håvard Grip said as he confirmed telemetry at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
Brief though today's flight was, it may well be game-changing, paving the way for extensive exploration by Martian aircraft down the road. Thanks to Ingenuity's groundbreaking work, future Red Planet missions could commonly include choppers as scouts for rovers or data collectors in their own right, NASA officials have said.
The core team behind Ingenuity's pioneering flight watched today's Mars flight from a control room at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. They stood, threw up their hands and cheered as the flight's success was confirmed.
MiMi Aung, Ingenuity's project manager, triumphantly tore up her contingency speech (written in case of a failure) and hailed Ingenuity's historic feat on Mars. Every planet, she's said in the past, gets only one first flight.
"We can now say that human beings have flown a rotorcraft on another planet!" Aung said as her team cheered. "We've been talking so long about our Wright brothers moment on Mars, and here it is."
NASA named Ingenuity's Martian airfield Wright Brothers Field after Orville and Wilbur Wright, who performed the first heavier-than-air flight on Earth in 1903. There's also a piece of their Wright Flyer plane on Ingenuity to mark the event.
Because of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, much of Ingenuity's mission team watched today's event via a WebEx video conference. Aung sent them all remote hugs of success.
"You know I'm hugging you virtually," Aung told her team.
Pioneering Martian flight
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Ingenuity's $85 million mission is a technology demonstration, designed to show that powered, controlled flight is possible on the Red Planet.
This was far from a given; the Martian atmosphere is just 1% as dense as that of Earth at sea level, so there's not much air for helicopter blades to push against. This disadvantage outweighs the benefits that aircraft gain from Mars' lower gravitational pull, which is just 38% as strong as Earth's.
Ingenuity flew to Mars attached to the belly of Perseverance, landing inside Jezero with the $2.7 billion rover on Feb. 18. Early this month, the solar-powered rotorcraft deployed onto the crater floor and began prepping for its historic month-long flight campaign, which was originally supposed to begin on April 11.
That campaign is not focused on gathering data; it's meant only to prove that the feat is possible. Ingenuity carries no scientific instruments, though it is equipped with a black-and-white navigation camera and a 13-megapixel color imager.
The 19-inch-tall (48 centimeters) helicopter sailed through its preflight checks until the final one, an attempted high-speed spin test of the craft's twin, 4-foot-long (1.2 m) rotors on April 9. Those carbon-fiber blades were supposed to spin at about 2,400 revolutions per minute — the rotational velocity they achieve during operational flight — while Ingenuity remained on the ground. But the chopper suffered an issue with its "watchdog timer" and failed to transition into flight mode as required by the test.
The mission team initially pushed the flight back to April 14, then delayed it again to troubleshoot the issue further. On Saturday (April 17), Aung announced that the team was confident it had found a fix — an adjustment of the command sequence beamed from Earth — and set today as the targeted first-flight date.
"This solution is the least disruptive to a helicopter that, up until we identified the watchdog issue, has been behaving just as we expected," Aung wrote in a blog post Saturday. "It is the most straightforward, since we do not have to change its configuration."
The fix was effective, as this morning's flight shows. Ingenuity flew as planned with the modified command sequence, becoming the first robot ever to ply Mars' thin, dusty skies.
Don't assume from this focus on commands, however, that Ingenuity is a mindless drone; the little robot is capable of significant autonomy. For example, Ingenuity gets its bearings during flight in real time by analyzing the photos snapped by its navigation camera.
More to come
Ingenuity will fly again soon, if all goes according to plan — up to four more times, in fact, during its month-long window.
The helicopter will likely go slightly higher and farther on flights two and three, getting up to 16.5 feet (5 m) off the ground and moving a maximum of 165 feet (50 m) downrange, Aung said during a news conference earlier this month. If Ingenuity aces those next two flights, sorties four and five could be "really adventurous," she added.
"History does tell us that soon after their first flight, Orville and Wilbur did go right back to work," Aung said today of the Wright Brothers' famous experiment at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, on Dec. 17, 1903. They flew three more times that day, each one higher and farther than the last, she added.
"This is just the first great flight," Aung said. "Congratulations, take a moment and then let's get back to work!"
Perseverance will serve as support during the entire flight campaign; communications to and from Ingenuity must go through the rover, after all. But that campaign is hard-capped at one month in duration, because Perseverance needs to focus on its own work soon. That work has two main components — hunting for evidence of ancient Mars life on the floor of the 28-mile-wide (45 kilometers) Jezero, which hosted a lake and a river delta billions of years ago, and collecting and caching dozens of samples.
Those samples will be hauled to Earth by a joint NASA/European Space Agency campaign, potentially as early as 2031. Scientists around the world will then be able to analyze the pristine Mars material in far greater detail than Perseverance ever could, capable and complex though the rover is.
Mike Wall is the author of "Out There" (Grand Central Publishing, 2018; illustrated by Karl Tate), a book about the search for alien life. Follow him on Twitter @michaeldwall. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook.
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Michael Wall is a Senior Space Writer with Space.com and joined the team in 2010. He primarily covers exoplanets, spaceflight and military space, but has been known to dabble in the space art beat. His book about the search for alien life, "Out There," was published on Nov. 13, 2018. Before becoming a science writer, Michael worked as a herpetologist and wildlife biologist. He has a Ph.D. in evolutionary biology from the University of Sydney, Australia, a bachelor's degree from the University of Arizona, and a graduate certificate in science writing from the University of California, Santa Cruz. To find out what his latest project is, you can follow Michael on Twitter.