Aphelion 2022: Earth will be farthest from the sun on the Fourth of July

Starry Night graphic of Earth's orbit.
Earth will reach aphelion on July 4. (Image credit: Starry Night)

On Monday (July 4), Earth celebrates Independence Day by getting as far away from the sun as possible — reaching what astronomers call aphelion at 3 a.m. EDT (0700 GMT).

At aphelion, Earth will be 94.51 million miles (152.1 million kilometers) away from the sun, states geophysicist Chris Vaughan, an amateur astronomer with SkySafari Software who oversees Space.com's Night Sky calendar.

Earth will be 1.67% farther from the sun than the mean Earth-sun separation, also known as an astronomical unit. (One astronomical unit is equivalent to 92.96 million miles (149.6 million km)). 

Related: The brightest planets in July's night sky: How to see them (and when)

It can be difficult to imagine Earth so far away from the sun on a hot summer's day, but "seasonal temperature variations arise from the varying direction of Earth's axial tilt, as opposed to our distance from the sun," Vaughan wrote. The angle of the tilt affects whether the sun's rays strike Earth at a low angle or more directly. 

Earth will be closest to the sun — a moment dubbed perihelion — on January 4, 2023, when it will be 91.4 million miles (147.1 million km) away from the sun according to timeanddate.

Earth's orbit is not a perfect circle which is why we experience aphelion and perihelion. The degree to which our planet's orbit diverges from a perfect circle is known as its eccentricity. Out of all the planets in the solar system, Venus has the most circular orbit. The planet ranges between just 66 million miles (107 million km) and 68 million miles (109 million km) from the sun, according to Universe Today

NEVER look at the sun with binoculars, a telescope or your unaided eye without special protection. Astrophotographers and astronomers use special filters to safely observe the sun. Here's our guide on how to observe the sun safely

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Daisy Dobrijevic
Reference Editor

Daisy Dobrijevic joined Space.com in February 2022 having previously worked for our sister publication All About Space magazine as a staff writer. Before joining us, Daisy completed an editorial internship with the BBC Sky at Night Magazine and worked at the National Space Centre in Leicester, U.K., where she enjoyed communicating space science to the public. In 2021, Daisy completed a PhD in plant physiology and also holds a Master's in Environmental Science, she is currently based in Nottingham, U.K. Daisy is passionate about all things space, with a penchant for solar activity and space weather. She has a strong interest in astrotourism and loves nothing more than a good northern lights chase!