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Fire on the space station! Astronauts preparing ongoing combustion research.

A screenshot of the Structure and Response of Spherical Diffusion Flames (s-Flame) experiment in action.
A screenshot of the Structure and Response of Spherical Diffusion Flames (s-Flame) experiment in action. (Image credit: NASA )

Similar to the cult 1981 prehistoric fantasy film, NASA is on its own "Quest for Fire" to better understand how flames work in space.

The agency lit about 1,500 flames under six investigations on board of the International Space Station, as a part of the long-running Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (opens in new tab), or ACME, project. The goal of the project, which began in 2017, used the microgravity environment to better understand the physics, structure and behavior of flames.

"That knowledge can help designers and engineers here on Earth develop furnaces, power plants, boilers, and other combustion systems that are more efficient, less polluting and safer," Dennis Stocker, ACME Project Scientist at NASA Glenn Research Center, said in a recent agency statement (opens in new tab).

 Related:  Here's 7 things the International Space Station taught us in 2021

NASA astronaut time is precious, so as much as possible the ACME team sought to run the experiments remotely from NASA's Glenn ISS Payload Operations Center in Cleveland.

The experiments, housed inside a module inside the station's Combustion Integrated Rack, spanned 4.5 years of in-orbit operations. While ACME is no longer there — it was removed in February to make place for a newer set of fire-safety experiments called the Solid Fuel Ignition and Extinction, or SoFIE — Stocker said the contribution of the ACME experiment set was more than originally envisioned.

"Over 1,500 flames were ignited, more than three times the number originally planned," Stocker said. "Several 'firsts' were also achieved, perhaps most notably in the areas of cool and spherical flames."

ACME's hardware should return to Earth sometime in 2022, NASA noted, and will be repurposed for a new set of experiments that will go to space in the next few years.

In NASA's words, the completed experiments are:

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Elizabeth Howell, Ph.D., is a contributing writer for (opens in new tab) since 2012. As a proud Trekkie and Canadian, she tackles topics like spaceflight, diversity, science fiction, astronomy and gaming to help others explore the universe. Elizabeth's on-site reporting includes two human spaceflight launches from Kazakhstan, and embedded reporting from a simulated Mars mission in Utah. She holds a Ph.D. and M.Sc (opens in new tab). in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota, and a Bachelor of Journalism from Canada's Carleton University. Her latest book, NASA Leadership Moments, is co-written with astronaut Dave Williams. Elizabeth first got interested in space after watching the movie Apollo 13 in 1996, and still wants to be an astronaut someday.