Meteor Showers on Mercury May Explain Astronomical Puzzle

Mercury Encke Trail
New research suggests that Mercury experiences meteor showers when it passes through the trail of Comet Encke. (Image credit: NASA/Goddard)

Mercury can experience meteor showers as Comet Encke periodically peppers the planet's tenuous atmosphere with dust, new research suggests.

Earth has several meteor showers every year, generally occurring when the planet plows through the dust trail left behind by a comet or asteroid passing near the sun. These particles fall into the atmosphere and burn up, creating a trail for skywatchers to follow.

Research also suggests that Mars likely got a flurry of meteors a year ago, when Comet Siding Spring made a close pass by the Red Planet. Compared to Earth's and Mars' atmospheres, Mercury's is much less substantial — made of just clouds of atomic particles formed from surface ejections or the solar wind — but the particles still have an effect on the exosphere, the outer fringe of its atmosphere. [The Most Enduring Mysteries of Mercury]

NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury. See how the MESSENGER mission to Mercury works in this infographic. (Image credit: Karl Tate/

The new Mercury finding came after scientists were puzzled by a strange pattern in calcium observed in the thin atmosphere of the crater-filled planet.

Based on observations from NASA's MESSENGER (Mercury Surface Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging) spacecraft, scientists found that calcium measured near the planet's surface varies regularly through Mercury's year. Usually, the calcium peaks just after Mercury is at its closest point to the sun, called perihelion. (MESSENGER concluded its mission earlier this year.)

A mystery arose, however, when a model predicted that Mercury's calcium peak should instead occur just before perihelion, based on when the planet moves through interplanetary dust near the sun.

The researchers thought that Comet Encke might be responsible. With the comet's short orbit of just 3.3 years, the sun's energy has affected the body so much that a dense dust stream formed over millennia. But the timing was still a puzzle: At first, the team thought the comet's dust could hit Mercury's surface and blast calcium particles from the planet into space, but the calcium peak falls a week before Encke's closest approach to Mercury.

To learn more, the researchers modeled Encke's orbit over the course of tens of thousands of years. The model suggested that the comet's dust trail spreads along the path of the comet. When the effects of sunlight are taken into account, the light's slight drag on Encke's ejected dust grains greatly changes their orbits over a period of years.

In the model, the dust stream eventually lagged behind Encke, to a spot similar to where the calcium peak was observed in real life. Dust grains that were bigger and younger, ejected a relatively short time ago, were not shifted as much as older, smaller grains were.

In other words, the model seems to predict that grains about a millimeter in size, ejected from Encke between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, would hit Mercury right when the calcium peak occurs.

The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences, held in Maryland in October. Researchers participating in the study included Apostolos Christou, of the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland; Rosemary Killen, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland; and Matthew Burger, of Morgan State University in Baltimore, who also works at Goddard.

A paper on the research also appeared in the Sept. 28 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Follow Elizabeth Howell @howellspace, or @Spacedotcom. We're also on Facebook and Google+. Original article on

Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at:

Elizabeth Howell
Staff Writer, Spaceflight

Elizabeth Howell (she/her), Ph.D., is a staff writer in the spaceflight channel since 2022 covering diversity, education and gaming as well. She was contributing writer for for 10 years before joining full-time. Elizabeth's reporting includes multiple exclusives with the White House and Office of the Vice-President of the United States, an exclusive conversation with aspiring space tourist (and NSYNC bassist) Lance Bass, speaking several times with the International Space Station, witnessing five human spaceflight launches on two continents, flying parabolic, working inside a spacesuit, and participating in a simulated Mars mission. Her latest book, "Why Am I Taller?", is co-written with astronaut Dave Williams. Elizabeth holds a Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota, a Bachelor of Journalism from Canada's Carleton University and a Bachelor of History from Canada's Athabasca University. Elizabeth is also a post-secondary instructor in communications and science at several institutions since 2015; her experience includes developing and teaching an astronomy course at Canada's Algonquin College (with Indigenous content as well) to more than 1,000 students since 2020. Elizabeth first got interested in space after watching the movie Apollo 13 in 1996, and still wants to be an astronaut someday. Mastodon: