The James Webb Space Telescope is changing our understanding of the cosmos.
Galaxies in the early days of the universe were much more varied and mature than previously thought, according to a new study of observations of hundreds of galaxies by NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).
The Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) Survey has been using JWST to look far back in time, studying galaxies as they were around 11 to 13 billion years ago.
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The images of faint, highly redshifted galaxies returned by JWST are much sharper than similar photos captured by the Hubble Space Telescope. These new images have revealed the presence of mature features such as disks and spheroidal components, Jeyhan Kartaltepe, an associate professor in the Rochester Institute of Technology's School of Physics and Astronomy, said in a statement.
"This means that, even at these high redshifts, galaxies were already fairly evolved and had a wide range of structures," said Kartaltepe, lead author of the new paper and a CEERS co-investigator.
These early galaxies were therefore much more like the galaxies of the present than previously known.
"This tells us that we don't yet know when the earliest galaxy structures formed," said Kartaltepe. "We're not yet seeing the very first galaxies with disks. We'll have to examine a lot more galaxies at even higher redshifts to really quantify at what point in time features like disks were able to form."
The results of the study, which used an early JWST data set from June last year, have been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal and posted on the online preprint site ArXiv.
Since then, the CEERS survey has racked up another 60 observing hours with JWST, meaning there may be many thousands of high redshift galaxies to further explore and advance our understanding of how the early universe evolved.
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This will require a big patch. And some kind of change to the narrative of evolution of what we see.
The ratio of spiral and elliptical galaxies at great distances is the same as we observe close up. (Spiral are supposed to evolve from elliptical).
Elements that weren’t predicted to have evolved yet at great distances are soon to be found I’m sure. Looking forward to that one.
I’m kinda thinking a bigger telescope isn’t gonna solve these issues for the big bang model.
As studies continue using JWST, it should be very interesting to see how the BB cosmology is *tweaked* to explain the new observations. Tweaking can be good, but also a method used to avoid falsification of a model in science too.
We know what Planck's Constant is. We know what the Heisenberg Uncertainty is. At the instant of the Big Bang, there had to be a certain amount of lumpiness to the universe due to quantum fluctuations as predicted by Planck and Heisenberg. As the universe got bigger, the lumpiness spread out and became less. We simply tailor the amount of expansion in our model to the observed amount of lumpiness as far back as we can see.
This is the Lambda - Cold Dark Matter model. There are other models, including the Steady State model. None of them explain the observations better than Lamda-CDM.
In the Cosmology section, "What would it take to falsify the "big bang" model of cosmology?" - Post #4.
"I would expect any alternative theory that better fit the observations would become accepted. Here are some things the alternative theory would need to address:
The Expansion of the Universe.
....> Hubble Constant (redshift)
....> Einstein's field equations (1916) predicted an expanding (or contracting) universe
....> Time Dilation of Supernova
....> Gamma Ray Bursts
....> The CMBR - Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation....…......> The wavelength (microwave)
......…...> The Temperature (2.73K).
......…...> The Blackbody Results.
......…...> The "smoothness" (isotropy) ...……...> The very small "roughness" (anisotropy) in this radiation.
......…...> The angular size of the "hot" spots matching predictions.
......…...> The power spectrum
....> Distant Cloud temperatures
....> The Element Abundances from Nucleosynthesis.
....> Helium (25%)
....> Deuterium, its relative abundance.
....> The observed Differences in Galaxies between today's and earlier ones.
......…..> Paucity of distant Barred Spirals.
......…..> Less organized distant Spirals.
......…..> No local Quasars.
....> The Age of the Universe in relation to Stellar Compositions.
....> Olber's Paradox resolved.
....> Entropy - "The universe is dying" (Helmholtz & 2nd Law).
....> Galactic Superstructure of Super Clusters and Galactic Strands....> No Ancient Objects older than 15 billion years.
....> The anisotropy found in background neutrino maping, probably.
....> The Lyman Forest morphology "