The last chance to see a total lunar eclipse for more than two years comes Wednesday evening for most residents of North America and Western Europe.
The event -- which might be televised during World Series Game 4 -- will wrap up a series of four total lunar eclipses in the past 18 months. But there won't be another one for more than two years, on March 3, 2007.
What causes an eclipse, and why do they occur on an irregular schedule?
Unpredictability is at the heart of eclipse lore. For the ancients, a lunar eclipse was a haunting event. Some believed a dragon of the sky was eating the Moon, flooding it with blood before consuming it entirely. Of course it always came back, and that fueled more speculation.
Here are 10 cool facts about the dark history of lunar eclipses and how they really work.
1) Earth gets in the way
The cause of lunar eclipses is simple: Earth gets in the way.
The Moon is a shiny beacon because it reflects sunlight. The Moon makes no light of its own. Earth always casts a shadow into space, and every now and then everything aligns just right so that the shadow falls on the Moon.
Lunar eclipses can only occur at Full Moon, that time each month when the Moon is directly opposite the Earth in relation to the Sun. It's like you, representing the Earth, standing in front of a bright light and casting a shadow on a child. [Graphic]
This week's total lunar eclipse starts Wednesday evening in North and South America and, for eastern locations, runs into Thursday morning. In Western Europe, the whole event takes place after midnight. [Timetable]
Next: So why don't they occur every month?
2) Why lunar eclipses don't occur every month
Since lunar eclipses occur always at Full Moon, it makes sense to ask why each Full Moon does not generate one.
Eclipses are relatively rare because the plane in which the Moon orbits around Earth is tilted 5 degrees compared to the plane of Earth's travels around the Sun, a plane that astronomers call the ecliptic.
To visualize, think of commingling Hula Hoops -- one big and one small -- floating on the surface of a pool, and push the inner one down so that half of it is below the surface and half above.
When the Moon gets into the ecliptic --right at the surface of the pool -- during its full phase, then a lunar eclipse occurs. (The word "ecliptic" stems from the word "eclipse.")
The geometry of any eclipse -- the relative positions of the Sun, Earth and Moon -- is eventually repeated during a set of complex cycles that each last just more than 18 years. This Saros cycle, as the whole thing is called, is behind the bunching of eclipses, too. Astronomers have figured it out and can predict eclipse timing and circumstances far into future.Eclipse Overview | Minute-by-Minute Guide | All about the Moon
Next: So just how often do they occur?
3) Lunar eclipses are frequent, relatively speaking
Though you might not have logged many lunar eclipses in your life, they are common compared to solar eclipses, at least in one sense.
Solar eclipses are fairly numerous, generally two to five per year, but the area on the ground covered by totality is only a few tens of miles (kilometers) wide, so it's rare to be in the path of a total solar eclipse. In any given location on Earth, a total solar eclipse happens only once every 360 years.
Lunar eclipses are less frequent, but total lunar eclipses are visible everywhere that it is nighttime as the event takes place -- essentially half the globe.
Any given location can experience up to three lunar eclipses per year, as last happened in 1982. Some years there are none, as in both 2005 and 2006.Eclipse Overview | Minute-by-Minute Guide | All about the Moon
Next: What would we see from the Moon?
4) Lunar eclipses visible from the Moon, too
When Earth experiences a total lunar eclipse, things get interesting on the Moon, too.
If you were there, on the side facing Earth, the home planet would block out the Sun. The Sun's light would not completely disappear, however. Earth would be ringed by light scattered through its atmosphere.
SPACE.com's Night Sky Columnist, Joe Rao, puts it this way, "The Sun would be hidden behind a dark Earth outlined by a brilliant red ring consisting of all the world's sunrises and sunsets."
This affects our view from Earth, too. The light refracted by all these sunrises and sunsets can fall on the Moon, giving it a red glow instead of it completely disappearing. Each eclipse is different, however, and some yield little of this reddening effect.Eclipse Overview | Minute-by-Minute Guide | All about the Moon
Next: Ancient lore
5) A bite out of the Moon
For ancient people, eclipses were odd and inexplicable, even terrifying. Some cultures saw lunar eclipses as signs of celestial wrath that portended famine or disease.
The Chinese word for eclipse is chih, which means "to eat."
One can imagine that the bloody cast of the Moon in some eclipses only added to the fear of what was going on. Even into the 19th Century, the Chinese navy fired cannons to scare off the dragon they imagined was eating the Moon.Eclipse Overview | Minute-by-Minute Guide | All about the Moon
Next: Myths persist today
6) Myths persist today
Myths die hard.
In Japan, some people still cover wells to avoid being poisoned by the disease of the Moon during an eclipse. Native residents of Arctic regions are known to turn over their utensils to avoid contamination.
In other cultures, people yell at the Moon during an eclipse, or they bang pots or even shoot into the air.Eclipse Overview | Minute-by-Minute Guide | All about the Moon
Next Page: Early predictions
7) Stonehenge may have predicted eclipses
The mysterious arrangement of boulders in England has long been associated with celestial meaning. But scientists have struggled to figure out what the meaning was for the folks who erected the rocks about 3,500 years ago.
One purpose may have been to predict lunar eclipses.
In the year 2000, a researcher who had been studying Stonehenge for two decades stumbled upon the observation that if a person placed stone markers at strategic locations atop 19 columns in the array, a known 47-month cycle of lunar eclipses would become apparent.
Next: Eclipses changed history
8) Eclipses changed history
When the Moon disappeared in 413 BC, Athenians saw it as a bad omen and delayed their planned retreat from the Sicilian city of Syracuse, where they had fought for two years in the Peloponnesian War.
The Syracusans used the delay as an opportunity to break the siege, contributing -- some believe -- to the fall of Greek civilization.
Christopher Columbus actually used an eclipse knowingly to perhaps alter history.
Stranded in Jamaica in 1503, on his fourth voyage, Columbus and his crew were wearing out their welcome with the natives, who were feeding them. Columbus knew a lunar eclipse was coming, so he "predicted" the Moon's disappearance. The natives begged him to bring it back and, of course, he did, in due time.Eclipse Overview | Minute-by-Minute Guide | All about the Moon
Next: Eclipse time limits
9) Eclipse time limits
Columbus knew that lunar eclipses don't go on forever. Astronomers say none can last more than 3 hours and 40 minutes. Totality -- when the Moon is completely immersed in shadow -- cannot run more than 1 hour and 40 minutes.
The period of totality for the Oct. 27, 2004 eclipse will be 1 hour and 22 minutes.
An eclipse on Nov. 8, 2003 had a period of totality just 25 minutes long [Photos].
Why the difference? Earth's shadow is cone-shaped. Envision a slice of it, a two-dimensional circle through which the Moon can pass. Longer stretches of totality mean the Moon is traversing the center of the circle. Shorter total eclipses occur when the Moon's path is nearer the top or the bottom of the shadow.
Next: The World Series Eclipse
10) The World Series Eclipse
This will be the first eclipse ever to occur during a World Series game. The circumstance owes partly to fact that Series games were not played at night until 1971.
If FOX television producers so choose, glimpses of the eclipse could be broadcast to a national audience during Game 4.
Another World Series eclipse can't occur until at least 2050, according to an analysis by SPACE.com's Night Sky Columnist Joe Rao.
Superstitious Boston Red Sox fans might watch the sky Wednesday to see if the Moon turns red or not. And we'll leave it to them to decide whether the omen of the ancients portends good or bad for their championship aspirations.
Editor's Note: Portions of this article were first published prior to the May 15, 2003 total lunar eclipse.