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Brown Dwarfs: Strange Failed Stars of the Universe Explained (Infographic)

The particulars of brown dwarf objects.
Not quite massive enough to ignite nuclear fusion, brown dwarfs may be as common as regular stars in the universe. (Image credit: by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist)

Brown dwarfs started out the same as ordinary stars, collapsing from giant nebulas of dust and gas. Most brown dwarfs are not quite massive enough to sustain a nuclear fusion reaction at their cores. Brown dwarfs, therefore, are transitional objects, standing between stars and giant gas planets. The mass of a brown dwarf can range from 13 to 90 times the mass of the planet Jupiter, or up to about a tenth the mass of the sun.

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Karl Tate

Karl's association with Space.com goes back to 2000, when he was hired to produce interactive Flash graphics. From 2010 to 2016, Karl worked as an infographics specialist across all editorial properties of Purch (formerly known as TechMediaNetwork).  Before joining Space.com, Karl spent 11 years at the New York headquarters of The Associated Press, creating news graphics for use around the world in newspapers and on the web.  He has a degree in graphic design from Louisiana State University and now works as a freelance graphic designer in New York City.