Perseverance rover drops 2nd sample tube on Mars, its biggest early Christmas present yet for 2033

Photo of Mars rover Perseverance's second sample tube on the Martian surface in rover's shadow
This photo from NASA's Mars rover Perseverance shows its second sample tube on the Martian surface, in the rover's shadow. NASA announced it was deposited on Dec. 23, 2022. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

NASA's Perseverance rover keeps dropping early Christmas presents on Mars.

On Friday (Dec. 23), NASA announced that Perseverance successfully dropped its second rock sample tube on the Martian surface. And while it's not the first Mars sample Perseverance has dropped for a potential future mission to bring to Earth in 2033, it certainly is the biggest.

"My second sample drop is looking good!" NASA's Perseverance rover team wrote in a Twitter update (opens in new tab) Friday. "This tube holds a piece of sedimentary rock from the edge of the ancient river delta here — the longest rock core I've taken to date."

Related: 12 amazing photos from the Perseverance's 1st year on Mars

The longest rock core collected by Perseverance is a sample called "Mageik," which the rover drilled out of the rock "Amalik" this fall from the "Enchanted Lake" region of ancient delta in its Jezero Crater landing site. 

"The tube itself is about the size of a marker, and I measured the rock core sample inside at 7.36 cm (about 2.9 inches)," NASA wrote as Perseverance on Twitter (opens in new tab). Perseverance dropped its first sample tube at a nearby spot on Wednesday (Dec. 21).

Perseverance is dropping 10 sealed tubes containing Mars rock samples, which resemble miniature lightsabers from Star Wars, for potential collection by a future Mars Sample Return mission. That mission and an orbiter could launch to Mars by 2028 and return the sample tubes to Earth five years later. If all goes according to plan, Perseverance or two small helicopters will deliver Mars samples to a lander that would then launch them into space so that a waiting orbiter can collect them for the trip back to Earth.

This map shows where NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover is taking to drop 10 samples that a future mission could pick up. The orange circles represent areas where a Sample Recovery Helicopter could safely operate to acquire the sample tubes. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

The samples Perseverance is dropping are backups. The rover collected twin samples at each drill site, storing one inside its body while dropping the other in case a backup is needed. Perseverance is expected to deliver the ones it carries to the waiting lander if the nuclear-powered lasts long enough to reach the Mars Sample Return lander at the end of the decade.

NASA's Perseverance rover landed on Mars in February 2021. It's primary mission will last two years, but NASA hopes the rover could live much longer. Its predecessor, the nuclear-powered Curiosity rover, recently celebrated its 10th anniversary on Mars in August. 

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Tariq Malik
Editor-in-Chief

Tariq is the Editor-in-Chief of Space.com and joined the team in 2001, first as an intern and staff writer, and later as an editor. He covers human spaceflight, exploration and space science, as well as skywatching and entertainment. He became Space.com's Managing Editor in 2009 and Editor-in-Chief in 2019. Before joining Space.com, Tariq was a staff reporter for The Los Angeles Times covering education and city beats in La Habra, Fullerton and Huntington Beach. In October 2022, Tariq received the Harry Kolcum Award (opens in new tab) for excellence in space reporting from the National Space Club Florida Committee. He is also an Eagle Scout (yes, he has the Space Exploration merit badge) and went to Space Camp four times as a kid and a fifth time as an adult. He has journalism degrees from the University of Southern California and New York University. You can find Tariq at Space.com and as the co-host to the This Week In Space podcast (opens in new tab) with space historian Rod Pyle on the TWiT network (opens in new tab). To see his latest project, you can follow Tariq on Twitter @tariqjmalik (opens in new tab).