Israel's first astronaut, Ilan Ramon, carried a Torah scroll with him to space.
The habitable zone defines the range of distances where a planet might support water, and perhaps life.
NASA's Hi-C (High-Resolution Coronal Imager) mission spotted never-before-seen solar magnetic braids.
Experts diverged on best interpretations of quantum theory, including whether Einstein was right or wrong.
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Hubble could run for at least a year after its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, launches in 2017.
If the petition gathers 25,000 signatures, the Obama administration must issue an official response.